This package for the Julia language provides an array type (the `AxisArray`

) that knows about its dimension names and axis values.
This allows for indexing by name without incurring any runtime overhead.
This permits one to implement algorithms that are oblivious to the storage order of the underlying arrays.
AxisArrays can also be indexed by the values along their axes, allowing column names or interval selections.

In contrast to similar approaches in Images.jl and NamedArrays.jl, this allows for type-stable selection of dimensions and compile-time axis lookup. It is also better suited for regularly sampled axes, like samples over time.

Collaboration is welcome! This is still a work-in-progress. See the roadmap for the project's current direction.

`Axis{}`

and keywordsAn `AxisArray`

stores an object of type `Axis{:name}`

for each dimension,
containing both the name (a `Symbol`

) and the "axis values" (an `AbstractVector`

).
These types are what made compile-time lookup possible.
Instead of providing them explicitly, it is now possible to use keyword arguments
for both construction and indexing:

```
V = AxisArray(rand(10); row='a':'j') # AxisArray(rand(10), Axis{:row}('a':'j'))
V[row='c'] == V[Axis{:row}('c')] == V[row=3] == V[3]
```

`axes()`

and `indices()`

The function `AxisArrays.axes`

returns the tuple of such `Axis`

objects.
Since Julia version 0.7, `Base.axes(V) == (1:10,)`

gives instead the range of possible
ordinary integer indices. (This was called `Base.indices`

.) Since both names are exported,
this collision results in a warning if you try to use `axes`

without qualification:

```
julia> axes([1,2])
WARNING: both AxisArrays and Base export "axes"; uses of it in module Main must be qualified
ERROR: UndefVarError: axes not defined
```

Packages that are upgrading to support Julia 0.7+ should:

- Replace all uses of the
`axes`

function with the fully-qualified`AxisArrays.axes`

- Replace all uses of the deprecated
`indices`

function with the un-qualified`axes`

- Immediately after
`using AxisArrays`

, add`const axes = Base.axes`

In the future, AxisArrays will be looking for a new name for its functionality.
This will allow you to use the idiomatic `Base`

name and offers an easy upgrade
path to whatever the new name will be.

```
julia> using Pkg; pkg"add AxisArrays Unitful"
julia> using AxisArrays, Unitful, Random
julia> fs = 40000; # Generate a 40kHz noisy signal, with spike-like stuff added for testing
julia> import Unitful: s, ms, µs
julia> rng = Random.MersenneTwister(123); # Seed a random number generator for repeatable examples
julia> y = randn(rng, 60*fs+1)*3;
julia> for spk = (sin.(0.8:0.2:8.6) .* [0:0.01:.1; .15:.1:.95; 1:-.05:.05] .* 50,
sin.(0.8:0.4:8.6) .* [0:0.02:.1; .15:.1:1; 1:-.2:.1] .* 50)
i = rand(rng, round(Int,.001fs):1fs)
while i+length(spk)-1 < length(y)
y[i:i+length(spk)-1] += spk
i += rand(rng, round(Int,.001fs):1fs)
end
end
julia> A = AxisArray(hcat(y, 2 .* y); time = (0s:1s/fs:60s), chan = ([:c1, :c2]))
2-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,2,...} with axes:
:time, 0.0 s:2.5e-5 s:60.0 s
:chan, Symbol[:c1, :c2]
And data, a 2400001×2 Array{Float64,2}:
3.5708 7.14161
6.14454 12.2891
3.42795 6.85591
1.37825 2.75649
-1.19004 -2.38007
-1.99414 -3.98828
2.9429 5.88581
-0.226449 -0.452898
0.821446 1.64289
-0.582687 -1.16537
⋮
-3.50593 -7.01187
2.26783 4.53565
-0.16902 -0.33804
-3.84852 -7.69703
0.226457 0.452914
0.560809 1.12162
4.67663 9.35326
-2.41005 -4.8201
-3.71612 -7.43224
```

AxisArrays behave like regular arrays, but they additionally use the axis
information to enable all sorts of fancy behaviors. For example, we can specify
indices in *any* order, just so long as we annotate them with the axis name:

```
julia> A[time=4] # or A[Axis{:time}(4)]
1-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,1,...} with axes:
:chan, Symbol[:c1, :c2]
And data, a 2-element Array{Float64,1}:
1.37825
2.75649
julia> A[chan = :c2, time = 1:5] # or A[Axis{:chan}(:c2), Axis{:time}(1:5)]
1-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,1,...} with axes:
:time, 0.0 s:2.5e-5 s:0.0001 s
And data, a 5-element Array{Float64,1}:
7.14161
12.2891
6.85591
2.75649
-2.38007
```

We can also index by the *values* of each axis using an `Interval`

type that
selects all values between two endpoints `a .. b`

or the axis values directly.
Notice that the returned AxisArray still has axis information itself... and it
still has the correct time information for those datapoints!

```
julia> A[40µs .. 220µs, :c1]
1-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,1,...} with axes:
:time, 5.0e-5 s:2.5e-5 s:0.0002 s
And data, a 7-element Array{Float64,1}:
3.42795
1.37825
-1.19004
-1.99414
2.9429
-0.226449
0.821446
julia> AxisArrays.axes(ans, 1)
AxisArrays.Axis{:time,StepRangeLen{Quantity{Float64, Dimensions:{𝐓}, Units:{s}},Base.TwicePrecision{Quantity{Float64, Dimensions:{𝐓}, Units:{s}}},Base.TwicePrecision{Quantity{Float64, Dimensions:{𝐓}, Units:{s}}}}}(5.0e-5 s:2.5e-5 s:0.0002 s)
```

You can also index by a single value using `atvalue(t)`

.
This function is not needed for categorical axes like `:chan`

here,
as `:c1`

is a `Symbol`

which can't be confused with an integer index.

Using `atvalue()`

will drop a dimension (like using a single integer).
Indexing with an `Interval(lo, hi)`

type retains dimensions, even
when the ends of the interval are equal (like using a range `1:1`

):

```
julia> A[atvalue(2.5e-5s), :c1]
6.14453912336772
julia> A[2.5e-5s..2.5e-5s, :c1]
1-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,1,...} with axes:
:time, 2.5e-5 s:2.5e-5 s:2.5e-5 s
And data, a 1-element Array{Float64,1}:
6.14454
```

You can even index by multiple values by broadcasting `atvalue`

over an array:

```
julia> A[atvalue.([2.5e-5s, 75.0µs])]
2-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,2,...} with axes:
:time, Quantity{Float64, Dimensions:{𝐓}, Units:{s}}[2.5e-5 s, 7.5e-5 s]
:chan, Symbol[:c1, :c2]
And data, a 2×2 Array{Float64,2}:
6.14454 12.2891
1.37825 2.75649
```

Sometimes, though, what we're really interested in is a window of time about a
specific index. One of the operations above (looking for values in the window from 40µs
to 220µs) might be more clearly expressed as a symmetrical window about a
specific index where we know something interesting happened. To represent this,
we use the `atindex`

function:

```
julia> A[atindex(-90µs .. 90µs, 5), :c2]
1-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,1,...} with axes:
:time_sub, -7.5e-5 s:2.5e-5 s:7.500000000000002e-5 s
And data, a 7-element Array{Float64,1}:
6.85591
2.75649
-2.38007
-3.98828
5.88581
-0.452898
1.64289
```

Note that the returned AxisArray has its time axis shifted to represent the interval about the given index! This simple concept can be extended to some very powerful behaviors. For example, let's threshold our data and find windows about those threshold crossings.

```
julia> idxs = findall(diff(A[:,:c1] .< -15) .> 0);
julia> spks = A[atindex(-200µs .. 800µs, idxs), :c1]
2-dimensional AxisArray{Float64,2,...} with axes:
:time_sub, -0.0002 s:2.5e-5 s:0.0008 s
:time_rep, Quantity{Float64, Dimensions:{𝐓}, Units:{s}}[0.162 s, 0.20045 s, 0.28495 s, 0.530325 s, 0.821725 s, 1.0453 s, 1.11967 s, 1.1523 s, 1.22085 s, 1.6253 s … 57.0094 s, 57.5818 s, 57.8716 s, 57.8806 s, 58.4353 s, 58.7041 s, 59.1015 s, 59.1783 s, 59.425 s, 59.5657 s]
And data, a 41×247 Array{Float64,2}:
0.672063 7.25649 0.633375 … 1.54583 5.81194 -4.706
-1.65182 2.57487 0.477408 3.09505 3.52478 4.13037
4.46035 2.11313 4.78372 1.23385 7.2525 3.57485
5.25651 -2.19785 3.05933 0.965021 6.78414 5.94854
7.8537 0.345008 0.960533 0.812989 0.336715 0.303909
0.466816 0.643649 -3.67087 … 3.92978 -3.1242 0.789722
-6.0445 -13.2441 -4.60716 0.265144 -4.50987 -8.84897
-9.21703 -13.2254 -14.4409 -8.6664 -13.3457 -11.6213
-16.1809 -22.7037 -25.023 -15.9376 -28.0817 -16.996
-23.2671 -31.2021 -25.3787 -24.4914 -32.2599 -26.1118
⋮ ⋱ ⋮
-0.301629 0.0683982 -4.36574 1.92362 -5.12333 -3.4431
4.7182 1.18615 4.40717 -4.51757 -8.64314 0.0800021
-2.43775 -0.151882 -1.40817 -3.38555 -2.23418 0.728549
3.2482 -0.60967 0.471288 … 2.53395 0.468817 -3.65905
-4.26967 2.24747 -3.13758 1.74967 4.5052 -0.145357
-0.752487 1.69446 -1.20491 1.71429 1.81936 0.290158
4.64348 -3.94187 -1.59213 7.15428 -0.539748 4.82309
1.09652 -2.66999 0.521931 -3.80528 1.70421 3.40583
-0.94341 2.60785 -3.34291 … 1.10584 4.31118 3.6404
```

By indexing with a repeated interval, we have *added* a dimension to the
output! The returned AxisArray's columns specify each repetition of the
interval, and each datapoint in the column represents a timepoint within that
interval, adjusted by the time of the theshold crossing. The best part here
is that the returned matrix knows precisely where its data came from, and has
labeled its dimensions appropriately. Not only is there the proper time
base for each waveform, but we also have recorded the event times as the axis
across the columns.

Two main types of Axes supported by default include:

Categorical axis -- These are vectors of labels, normally symbols or strings. Elements or slices can be selected by elements or vectors of elements.

Dimensional axis -- These are sorted vectors or iterators that can be selected by

`Intervals`

. These are commonly used for sequences of times or date-times. For regular sample rates, ranges can be used.

Here is an example with a Dimensional axis representing a time sequence along rows and a Categorical axis of symbols for column headers.

```
B = AxisArray(reshape(1:15, 5, 3), .1:.1:0.5, [:a, :b, :c])
B[row = (0.2..0.4)] # restrict the AxisArray along the time axis
B[0.0..0.3, [:a, :c]] # select an interval and two of the columns
```

User-defined axis types can be added along with custom indexing behaviors.

```
B = AxisArray(randn(100,100,100), :x, :y, :z)
Itotal = sumz = 0.0
for iter in CartesianIndices(Base.axes(B)) # traverses in storage order for cache efficiency
global Itotal, sumz
I = B[iter] # intensity in a single voxel
Itotal += I
sumz += I * iter[axisdim(B, Axis{:z})] # axisdim "looks up" the z dimension
end
meanz = sumz/Itotal
```

The intention is that all of these operations are just as efficient as they would be if you used traditional position-based indexing with all the inherent assumptions about the storage order of `B`

.

02/13/2015

about 1 month ago

305 commits