Restricted Boltzmann machines and deep belief networks in Julia
installing latest development version:
using Boltzmann X = randn(100, 2000) # 2000 observations (examples) # with 100 variables (features) each X = (X + abs(minimum(X))) / (maximum(X) - minimum(X)) # scale X to [0..1] rbm = GRBM(100, 50) # define Gaussian RBM with 100 visible (input) # and 50 hidden (output) variables fit(rbm, X) # fit model to data
(for more meaningful dataset see MNIST Example)
After model is fitted, you can extract learned coefficients (a.k.a. weights):
W = coef(rbm)
transform data vectors into new higher-level representation (e.g. for further classification):
Xt = transform(rbm, X) # vectors of X have length 100, vectors of Xt - length 50
or generate vectors similar to given ones (e.g. for recommendation, see example here)
x = ... x_new = generate(rbm, x)
RBMs can handle both - dense and sparse arrays. It cannot, however, handle DataArrays because it's up to application how to treat missing values.
This package provides implementation of the 2 most popular kinds of restricted Boltzmann machines:
BernoulliRBM: RBM with binary visible and hidden units
GRBM: RBM with Gaussian visible and binary hidden units
Bernoulli RBM is classic one and works great for modeling binary (e.g. like/dislike) and nearly binary (e.g. logistic-based) data. Gaussian RBM works better when visible variables approximately follow normal distribution, which is often the case e.g. for image data.
DBNs are created as a stack of named RBMs. Below is an example of training DBN for MNIST dataset:
using Boltzmann using MNIST X, y = traindata() X = X[:, 1:1000] # take only 1000 observations for speed X = X / (maximum(X) - (minimum(X))) # normalize to [0..1] layers = [("vis", GRBM(784, 256)), ("hid1", BernoulliRBM(256, 100)), ("hid2", BernoulliRBM(100, 100))] dbn = DBN(layers) fit(dbn, X) transform(dbn, X)
Once built, DBN can be converted into a deep autoencoder. Continuing previous example:
dae = unroll(dbn)
DAEs cannot be trained directly, but can be used to transform input data:
In this case output will have the same dimensionality as input, but with a noise removed.
Mocha.jl is an excellent deep learning framework implementing auto-encoders and a number of fine-tuning algorithms. Boltzmann.jl allows to save pretrained model in a Mocha-compatible file format to be used later on for supervised learning. Below is a snippet of the essential API, while complete code is available in Mocha Export Example:
# pretraining and exporting in Boltzmann.jl dbn_layers = [("vis", GRBM(100, 50)), ("hid1", BernoulliRBM(50, 25)), ("hid2", BernoulliRBM(25, 20))] dbn = DBN(dbn_layers) fit(dbn, X) save_params(DBN_PATH, dbn) # loading in Mocha.jl backend = CPUBackend() data = MemoryDataLayer(tops=[:data, :label], batch_size=500, data=Array[X, y]) vis = InnerProductLayer(name="vis", output_dim=50, tops=[:vis], bottoms=[:data]) hid1 = InnerProductLayer(name="hid1", output_dim=25, tops=[:hid1], bottoms=[:vis]) hid2 = InnerProductLayer(name="hid2", output_dim=20, tops=[:hid2], bottoms=[:hid1]) loss = SoftmaxLossLayer(name="loss",bottoms=[:hid2, :label]) net = Net("TEST", backend, [data, vis, hid1, hid2]) h5open(DBN_PATH) do h5 load_network(h5, net) end
about 2 months ago