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Sparse dynamic representation of multivariate polynomials that can be used with MultivariatePolynomials (see the documentation there for more information). Both commutative and non-commutative variables are supported. The following types are defined:

`PolyVar{C}`

: A variable which is commutative with`*`

when`C`

is`true`

. Commutative variables are created using the`@polyvar`

macro, e.g.`@polyvar x y`

,`@polyvar x[1:8]`

and non-commutative variables are created likewise using the`@ncpolyvar`

macro.`Monomial{C}`

: A product of variables: e.g.`x*y^2`

.`Term{C, T}`

: A product between an element of type`T`

and a`Monomial{C}`

, e.g`2x`

,`3.0x*y^2`

.`Polynomial{C, T}`

: A sum of`Term{C, T}`

, e.g.`2x + 3.0x*y^2 + y`

.

All common algebraic operations between those types are designed to be as efficient as possible without doing any assumption on `T`

.
Typically, one imagine `T`

to be a subtype of `Number`

but it can be anything.
This is useful for example in the package PolyJuMP where `T`

is often an affine expression of JuMP decision variables.
The commutativity of `T`

with `*`

is not assumed, even if it is the coefficient of a monomial of commutative variables.
However, commutativity of `T`

and of the variables `+`

is always assumed.
This allows to keep the terms sorted (Graded Lexicographic order is used) in polynomial and measure which enables more efficient operations.

Below is a simple usage example

```
@polyvar x y # assigns x (resp. y) to a variable of name x (resp. y)
p = 2x + 3.0x*y^2 + y
@test differentiate(p, x) # compute the derivative of p with respect to x
@test differentiate.(p, (x, y)) # compute the gradient of p
@test p((x, y)=>(y, x)) # replace any x by y and y by x
@test subs(p, y=>x^2) # replace any occurence of y by x^2
@test p(x=>1, y=>2) # evaluate p at [1, 2]
```

Below is an example with `@polyvar x[1:n]`

```
n = 3
A = rand(n, n)
@polyvar x[1:n] # assign x to a tuple of variables x1, x2, x3
p = sum(x .* x) # x_1^2 + x_2^2 + x_3^2
subs(p, x[1]=>2, x[3]=>3) # x_2^2 + 13
p(x=>A*vec(x)) # corresponds to dot(A*x, A*x), need vec to convert the tuple to a vector
```

Note that, when doing substitution, it is required to give the `PolyVar`

ordering that is meant.
Indeed, the ordering between the `PolyVar`

is not alphabetical but rather by order of creation
which can be undeterministic with parallel computing.
Therefore, this order cannot be used for substitution, even as a default (see here for a discussion about this).

04/29/2017

9 days ago

190 commits