Version 0.2 of ProfileView has several major changes:
Red highlighting has been restored; it now highlights type-instabilities, not garbage collection, as a means to better distinguish legitimate uses of allocation from ones that might be avoidable.
For users of the Gtk version, ProfileView has switched from GtkUtilities to GtkReactive. One consequence is that you now need to hold down Ctrl for any zoom operation. You can now shift the displayed region by click-dragging on the image.
Also for users of the Gtk version, Ctrl-q and Ctrl-w close the
window. You can also use
ProfileView.closeall() to close all
windows opened by ProfileView.
This package contains tools for visualizing profiling data collected with Julia's built-in sampling profiler. It can be helpful for getting a big-picture overview of the major bottlenecks in your code, and optionally highlights lines that trigger garbage collection as potential candidates for optimization.
This type of plot is known as a flame graph.
Within Julia, use the package manager:
To demonstrate ProfileView, first we have to collect some profiling data. Here's a simple test function for demonstration:
function profile_test(n) for i = 1:n A = randn(100,100,20) m = maximum(A) Afft = fft(A) Am = mapslices(sum, A, 2) B = A[:,:,5] Bsort = mapslices(sort, B, 1) b = rand(100) C = B.*b end end profile_test(1) # run once to trigger compilation Profile.clear() # in case we have any previous profiling data @profile profile_test(10)
Now that we have profiling data, visualizing it is a simple matter:
julia> using ProfileView julia> ProfileView.view()
If you're following along, you should see something like this:
This plot is a visual representation of the call graph of the code that you just profiled. The "root" of the tree is at the bottom; if you move your mouse over the long horizontal magenta bar at the bottom, you'll see it's an anonymous function in
REPL.jl; the orangish one above that is
eval_user_input in the same function. As is explained elsewhere, these are what run your code in the REPL. If you move your mouse upwards, you'll eventually get to the function(s) you ran with
While the vertical axis therefore represents nesting depth, the
horizontal axis represents the amount of time (more precisely, the
number of backtraces) spent at each line. One sees on the 4th line
from the bottom, there are several differently-colored bars, each
corresponding to a different line of
profile_test. The fact that
they are all positioned on top of the lower magenta bar means that all
of these lines are called by the same "parent" function. Within a
block of code, they are sorted in order of increasing line number, to
make it easier for you to compare to the source code.
From this visual representation, we can very quickly learn several things about this function:
The most deeply-nested line corresponds to
mapslices(sort, B, 1),
resulting in the tall "stack" of bars on the right edge. However,
this call does not take much time, because these bars are narrow
In contrast, the two most time-consuming operations are the calls to
mapslices(sum, A, 2). (This is more time-consuming than
mapslices(sort,...) simply because it has to process more
One thing we haven't yet discussed is the difference between the red bars and the more pastel-colored bars. To explore this difference, let's consider a different function:
unstable(x) = x > 0.5 ? true : 0.0 function profile_unstable_test(m, n) s = s2 = 0 for i = 1:n for k = 1:m s += unstable(rand()) end x = collect(1:20) s2 += sum(x) end s, s2 end profile_unstable_test(1, 1) Profile.clear() @profile profile_unstable_test(10, 10^6) ProfileView.view()
The main thing to note about this function is that the function
unstable does not have inferrable return type (a.k.a., it is
type-unstable); it can return either a
Bool or a
on the value (not type) of
x. When we visualize the profiling
results for this function, we see something like the following:
In this plot, red is a special color: it is reserved for function
calls that are deduced to be non-inferrable (by virtue of their
execution of the C functions
jl_apply_generic). Because type-instability often has a significant
impact on performance, we highlight the problematic call in red. It's
worth noting that some red is unavoidable; for example, the REPL can't
predict in advance the return types from what users type at the
prompt. Red bars are problematic only when they account for a sizable
fraction of the top "row," as only in such cases are they likely to be
the source of a significant performance bottleneck. In our first
example, we can see that
mapslices is (internally) non-inferrable;
from the absence of pastel-colored bars above much of the red, we
might guess that this type-instability makes a substantial
contribution to its total run time.
Left-clicking on a bar will cause information about this line to be printed in the REPL. This can be a convenient way to "mark" lines for later investigation.
Right-clicking on a bar calls the
edit() function to open the line
in an editor
CTRL-click lets you zoom in on a specific region of the image, and click-drag lets you pan the view. You can pan by scrolling the mouse (scroll=vertical, SHIFT-scroll=horizontal), and change zoom level with CTRL-scroll. You can also use your keyboard (arrow keys, plus SHIFT and CTRL modifiers). Double-click to restore the full view.
To use the Gtk interface in IJulia, set
PROFILEVIEW_USEGTK = true in
Main module before
The toolbar at the top contains two icons to load and save profile
data, respectively. Clicking the save icon will prompt you for a
ProfileView.view(nothing) opens a blank
window; you can populate it with saved data by clicking on the
Double-clicking on a bar will zoom in the graph around the bar.
Double-clicking on the background will zoom out to show the entire graph.
Click-drag anywhere on the graph will allow for panning.
view command has the following syntax:
function view(data = Profile.fetch(); lidict = nothing, C = false, colorgc = true, fontsize = 12, combine = true, pruned = )
Here is the meaning of the different arguments:
The first is the vector containing backtraces. You can use
copy(Profile.fetch()); Profile.clear() to store and examine results
from multiple profile runs simultaneously.
lidict is a dictionary containing "line information."
See the section on saving profile data below.
C is a flag controlling whether lines corresponding to C and Fortran
code are displayed. (Internally, ProfileView uses the information
from C backtraces to learn about garbage-collection and to
disambiguate the call graph).
true, causes lines triggering garbage-collection
to be displayed in red.
fontsize controls the size of the font displayed as a tooltip.
combine is explained elsewhere.
pruned is a list of functions (see example) whose call tree will not be displayed. This is useful to control the output of very deep (or recursive) functions. Example:
pruned = [("sort!", "sort.jl"), ("some_function_name", "some_filename.jl")]
If you're using the Gtk backend, the easiest approach is to click on the "Save as" icon.
From the REPL, you can save profile data for later viewing and analysis using the JLD file format. The main trick is that the backtrace data, on its own, is only valid within a particular julia session. To become portable, you have to save "line information" that looks up the particular line number in the source code corresponding to a particular machine instruction. Here's an example:
li, lidict = Profile.retrieve() using JLD @save "/tmp/foo.jlprof" li lidict
Now open a new julia session, and try the following:
using HDF5, JLD, ProfileView @load "/tmp/profdata.jld" ProfileView.view(li, lidict=lidict)
You can share your profiling results with others either as an SVG file or as an IJulia notebook. Simply use
ProfileView.svgwrite("profile_results.svg", bt, lidict)
retrieved stored data.
Alternatively, run ProfileView inside an IJulia notebook and then save the notebook.
1 day ago